pyarrow.dataset.FileSystemDataset¶

class pyarrow.dataset.FileSystemDataset(fragments, Schema schema, FileFormat format, FileSystem filesystem=None, root_partition=None)¶

Bases: Dataset

A Dataset of file fragments.

A FileSystemDataset is composed of one or more FileFragment.

Parameters:
fragmentslist[Fragments]

List of fragments to consume.

schemaSchema

The top-level schema of the Dataset.

formatFileFormat

File format of the fragments, currently only ParquetFileFormat, IpcFileFormat, and CsvFileFormat are supported.

filesystemFileSystem

FileSystem of the fragments.

root_partitionExpression, optional

The top-level partition of the DataDataset.

__init__(*args, **kwargs)¶

Methods

__init__(*args, **kwargs)

count_rows(self, Expression filter=None, ...)

Count rows matching the scanner filter.

filter(self, expression)

Apply a row filter to the dataset.

from_paths(type cls, paths[, schema, ...])

A Dataset created from a list of paths on a particular filesystem.

get_fragments(self, Expression filter=None)

Returns an iterator over the fragments in this dataset.

head(self, int num_rows[, columns])

Load the first N rows of the dataset.

join(self, right_dataset, keys[, ...])

Perform a join between this dataset and another one.

replace_schema(self, Schema schema)

Return a copy of this Dataset with a different schema.

scanner(self[, columns])

Build a scan operation against the dataset.

sort_by(self, sorting, **kwargs)

Sort the Dataset by one or multiple columns.

take(self, indices[, columns])

Select rows of data by index.

to_batches(self[, columns])

Read the dataset as materialized record batches.

to_table(self[, columns])

Read the dataset to an Arrow table.

Attributes

files

List of the files

filesystem

format

The FileFormat of this source.

partition_expression

An Expression which evaluates to true for all data viewed by this Dataset.

partitioning

The partitioning of the Dataset source, if discovered.

schema

The common schema of the full Dataset

count_rows(self, Expression filter=None, int batch_size=_DEFAULT_BATCH_SIZE, int batch_readahead=_DEFAULT_BATCH_READAHEAD, int fragment_readahead=_DEFAULT_FRAGMENT_READAHEAD, FragmentScanOptions fragment_scan_options=None, bool use_threads=True, MemoryPool memory_pool=None)¶

Count rows matching the scanner filter.

Parameters filter : Expression, default None

Scan will return only the rows matching the filter. If possible the predicate will be pushed down to exploit the partition information or internal metadata found in the data source, e.g. Parquet statistics. Otherwise filters the loaded RecordBatches before yielding them.

batch_sizeint, default 128Ki

The maximum row count for scanned record batches. If scanned record batches are overflowing memory then this method can be called to reduce their size.

batch_readaheadint, default 16

The number of batches to read ahead in a file. This might not work for all file formats. Increasing this number will increase RAM usage but could also improve IO utilization.

fragment_readaheadint, default 4

The number of files to read ahead. Increasing this number will increase RAM usage but could also improve IO utilization.

fragment_scan_optionsFragmentScanOptions, default None

Options specific to a particular scan and fragment type, which can change between different scans of the same dataset.

use_threadsbool, default True

If enabled, then maximum parallelism will be used determined by the number of available CPU cores.

memory_poolMemoryPool, default None

For memory allocations, if required. If not specified, uses the default pool.

Returns:
countint
files¶

List of the files

filesystem¶
filter(self, expression)¶

Apply a row filter to the dataset.

Parameters:
expressionExpression

The filter that should be applied to the dataset.

Returns:
Dataset
format¶

The FileFormat of this source.

from_paths(type cls, paths, schema=None, format=None, filesystem=None, partitions=None, root_partition=None)¶

A Dataset created from a list of paths on a particular filesystem.

Parameters:
pathslist of str

List of file paths to create the fragments from.

schemaSchema

The top-level schema of the DataDataset.

formatFileFormat

File format to create fragments from, currently only ParquetFileFormat, IpcFileFormat, and CsvFileFormat are supported.

filesystemFileSystem

The filesystem which files are from.

partitionslist[Expression], optional

Attach additional partition information for the file paths.

root_partitionExpression, optional

The top-level partition of the DataDataset.

get_fragments(self, Expression filter=None)¶

Returns an iterator over the fragments in this dataset.

Parameters:
filterExpression, default None

Return fragments matching the optional filter, either using the partition_expression or internal information like Parquet’s statistics.

Returns:
fragmentsiterator of Fragment
head(self, int num_rows, columns=None, Expression filter=None, int batch_size=_DEFAULT_BATCH_SIZE, int batch_readahead=_DEFAULT_BATCH_READAHEAD, int fragment_readahead=_DEFAULT_FRAGMENT_READAHEAD, FragmentScanOptions fragment_scan_options=None, bool use_threads=True, MemoryPool memory_pool=None)¶

Load the first N rows of the dataset.

Parameters:
num_rowsint

The number of rows to load.

columnslist of str, default None

The columns to project. This can be a list of column names to include (order and duplicates will be preserved), or a dictionary with {new_column_name: expression} values for more advanced projections.

The list of columns or expressions may use the special fields __batch_index (the index of the batch within the fragment), __fragment_index (the index of the fragment within the dataset), __last_in_fragment (whether the batch is last in fragment), and __filename (the name of the source file or a description of the source fragment).

The columns will be passed down to Datasets and corresponding data fragments to avoid loading, copying, and deserializing columns that will not be required further down the compute chain. By default all of the available columns are projected. Raises an exception if any of the referenced column names does not exist in the dataset’s Schema.

filterExpression, default None

Scan will return only the rows matching the filter. If possible the predicate will be pushed down to exploit the partition information or internal metadata found in the data source, e.g. Parquet statistics. Otherwise filters the loaded RecordBatches before yielding them.

batch_sizeint, default 128Ki

The maximum row count for scanned record batches. If scanned record batches are overflowing memory then this method can be called to reduce their size.

batch_readaheadint, default 16

The number of batches to read ahead in a file. This might not work for all file formats. Increasing this number will increase RAM usage but could also improve IO utilization.

fragment_readaheadint, default 4

The number of files to read ahead. Increasing this number will increase RAM usage but could also improve IO utilization.

fragment_scan_optionsFragmentScanOptions, default None

Options specific to a particular scan and fragment type, which can change between different scans of the same dataset.

use_threadsbool, default True

If enabled, then maximum parallelism will be used determined by the number of available CPU cores.

memory_poolMemoryPool, default None

For memory allocations, if required. If not specified, uses the default pool.

Returns:
tableTable
join(self, right_dataset, keys, right_keys=None, join_type='left outer', left_suffix=None, right_suffix=None, coalesce_keys=True, use_threads=True)¶

Perform a join between this dataset and another one.

Result of the join will be a new dataset, where further operations can be applied.

Parameters:
right_datasetdataset

The dataset to join to the current one, acting as the right dataset in the join operation.

keysstr or list[str]

The columns from current dataset that should be used as keys of the join operation left side.

right_keysstr or list[str], default None

The columns from the right_dataset that should be used as keys on the join operation right side. When None use the same key names as the left dataset.

join_typestr, default ‚Äúleft outer‚ÄĚ

The kind of join that should be performed, one of (‚Äúleft semi‚ÄĚ, ‚Äúright semi‚ÄĚ, ‚Äúleft anti‚ÄĚ, ‚Äúright anti‚ÄĚ, ‚Äúinner‚ÄĚ, ‚Äúleft outer‚ÄĚ, ‚Äúright outer‚ÄĚ, ‚Äúfull outer‚ÄĚ)

left_suffixstr, default None

Which suffix to add to right column names. This prevents confusion when the columns in left and right datasets have colliding names.

right_suffixstr, default None

Which suffic to add to the left column names. This prevents confusion when the columns in left and right datasets have colliding names.

coalesce_keysbool, default True

If the duplicated keys should be omitted from one of the sides in the join result.

use_threadsbool, default True

Whenever to use multithreading or not.

Returns:
InMemoryDataset
partition_expression¶

An Expression which evaluates to true for all data viewed by this Dataset.

partitioning¶

The partitioning of the Dataset source, if discovered.

If the FileSystemDataset is created using the dataset() factory function with a partitioning specified, this will return the finalized Partitioning object from the dataset discovery. In all other cases, this returns None.

replace_schema(self, Schema schema)¶

Return a copy of this Dataset with a different schema.

The copy will view the same Fragments. If the new schema is not compatible with the original dataset’s schema then an error will be raised.

Parameters:
schemaSchema

The new dataset schema.

scanner(self, columns=None, Expression filter=None, int batch_size=_DEFAULT_BATCH_SIZE, int batch_readahead=_DEFAULT_BATCH_READAHEAD, int fragment_readahead=_DEFAULT_FRAGMENT_READAHEAD, FragmentScanOptions fragment_scan_options=None, bool use_threads=True, MemoryPool memory_pool=None)¶

Build a scan operation against the dataset.

Data is not loaded immediately. Instead, this produces a Scanner, which exposes further operations (e.g. loading all data as a table, counting rows).

See the Scanner.from_dataset() method for further information.

Parameters:
columnslist of str, default None

The columns to project. This can be a list of column names to include (order and duplicates will be preserved), or a dictionary with {new_column_name: expression} values for more advanced projections.

The list of columns or expressions may use the special fields __batch_index (the index of the batch within the fragment), __fragment_index (the index of the fragment within the dataset), __last_in_fragment (whether the batch is last in fragment), and __filename (the name of the source file or a description of the source fragment).

The columns will be passed down to Datasets and corresponding data fragments to avoid loading, copying, and deserializing columns that will not be required further down the compute chain. By default all of the available columns are projected. Raises an exception if any of the referenced column names does not exist in the dataset’s Schema.

filterExpression, default None

Scan will return only the rows matching the filter. If possible the predicate will be pushed down to exploit the partition information or internal metadata found in the data source, e.g. Parquet statistics. Otherwise filters the loaded RecordBatches before yielding them.

batch_sizeint, default 128Ki

The maximum row count for scanned record batches. If scanned record batches are overflowing memory then this method can be called to reduce their size.

batch_readaheadint, default 16

The number of batches to read ahead in a file. This might not work for all file formats. Increasing this number will increase RAM usage but could also improve IO utilization.

fragment_readaheadint, default 4

The number of files to read ahead. Increasing this number will increase RAM usage but could also improve IO utilization.

fragment_scan_optionsFragmentScanOptions, default None

Options specific to a particular scan and fragment type, which can change between different scans of the same dataset.

use_threadsbool, default True

If enabled, then maximum parallelism will be used determined by the number of available CPU cores.

memory_poolMemoryPool, default None

For memory allocations, if required. If not specified, uses the default pool.

Returns:
scannerScanner

Examples

>>> import pyarrow as pa
>>> table = pa.table({'year': [2020, 2022, 2021, 2022, 2019, 2021],
...                   'n_legs': [2, 2, 4, 4, 5, 100],
...                   'animal': ["Flamingo", "Parrot", "Dog", "Horse",
...                              "Brittle stars", "Centipede"]})
>>>
>>> import pyarrow.parquet as pq
>>> pq.write_table(table, "dataset_scanner.parquet")
>>> import pyarrow.dataset as ds
>>> dataset = ds.dataset("dataset_scanner.parquet")

Selecting a subset of the columns:

>>> dataset.scanner(columns=["year", "n_legs"]).to_table()
pyarrow.Table
year: int64
n_legs: int64
----
year: [[2020,2022,2021,2022,2019,2021]]
n_legs: [[2,2,4,4,5,100]]

Projecting selected columns using an expression:

>>> dataset.scanner(columns={
...     "n_legs_uint": ds.field("n_legs").cast("uint8"),
... }).to_table()
pyarrow.Table
n_legs_uint: uint8
----
n_legs_uint: [[2,2,4,4,5,100]]

Filtering rows while scanning:

>>> dataset.scanner(filter=ds.field("year") > 2020).to_table()
pyarrow.Table
year: int64
n_legs: int64
animal: string
----
year: [[2022,2021,2022,2021]]
n_legs: [[2,4,4,100]]
animal: [["Parrot","Dog","Horse","Centipede"]]
schema¶

The common schema of the full Dataset

sort_by(self, sorting, **kwargs)¶

Sort the Dataset by one or multiple columns.

Parameters:
sortingstr or list[tuple(name, order)]

Name of the column to use to sort (ascending), or a list of multiple sorting conditions where each entry is a tuple with column name and sorting order (‚Äúascending‚ÄĚ or ‚Äúdescending‚ÄĚ)

**kwargsdict, optional

Additional sorting options. As allowed by SortOptions

Returns:
InMemoryDataset

A new dataset sorted according to the sort keys.

take(self, indices, columns=None, Expression filter=None, int batch_size=_DEFAULT_BATCH_SIZE, int batch_readahead=_DEFAULT_BATCH_READAHEAD, int fragment_readahead=_DEFAULT_FRAGMENT_READAHEAD, FragmentScanOptions fragment_scan_options=None, bool use_threads=True, MemoryPool memory_pool=None)¶

Select rows of data by index.

Parameters:
indicesArray or array-like

indices of rows to select in the dataset.

columnslist of str, default None

The columns to project. This can be a list of column names to include (order and duplicates will be preserved), or a dictionary with {new_column_name: expression} values for more advanced projections.

The list of columns or expressions may use the special fields __batch_index (the index of the batch within the fragment), __fragment_index (the index of the fragment within the dataset), __last_in_fragment (whether the batch is last in fragment), and __filename (the name of the source file or a description of the source fragment).

The columns will be passed down to Datasets and corresponding data fragments to avoid loading, copying, and deserializing columns that will not be required further down the compute chain. By default all of the available columns are projected. Raises an exception if any of the referenced column names does not exist in the dataset’s Schema.

filterExpression, default None

Scan will return only the rows matching the filter. If possible the predicate will be pushed down to exploit the partition information or internal metadata found in the data source, e.g. Parquet statistics. Otherwise filters the loaded RecordBatches before yielding them.

batch_sizeint, default 128Ki

The maximum row count for scanned record batches. If scanned record batches are overflowing memory then this method can be called to reduce their size.

batch_readaheadint, default 16

The number of batches to read ahead in a file. This might not work for all file formats. Increasing this number will increase RAM usage but could also improve IO utilization.

fragment_readaheadint, default 4

The number of files to read ahead. Increasing this number will increase RAM usage but could also improve IO utilization.

fragment_scan_optionsFragmentScanOptions, default None

Options specific to a particular scan and fragment type, which can change between different scans of the same dataset.

use_threadsbool, default True

If enabled, then maximum parallelism will be used determined by the number of available CPU cores.

memory_poolMemoryPool, default None

For memory allocations, if required. If not specified, uses the default pool.

Returns:
tableTable
to_batches(self, columns=None, Expression filter=None, int batch_size=_DEFAULT_BATCH_SIZE, int batch_readahead=_DEFAULT_BATCH_READAHEAD, int fragment_readahead=_DEFAULT_FRAGMENT_READAHEAD, FragmentScanOptions fragment_scan_options=None, bool use_threads=True, MemoryPool memory_pool=None)¶

Read the dataset as materialized record batches.

Parameters:
columnslist of str, default None

The columns to project. This can be a list of column names to include (order and duplicates will be preserved), or a dictionary with {new_column_name: expression} values for more advanced projections.

The list of columns or expressions may use the special fields __batch_index (the index of the batch within the fragment), __fragment_index (the index of the fragment within the dataset), __last_in_fragment (whether the batch is last in fragment), and __filename (the name of the source file or a description of the source fragment).

The columns will be passed down to Datasets and corresponding data fragments to avoid loading, copying, and deserializing columns that will not be required further down the compute chain. By default all of the available columns are projected. Raises an exception if any of the referenced column names does not exist in the dataset’s Schema.

filterExpression, default None

Scan will return only the rows matching the filter. If possible the predicate will be pushed down to exploit the partition information or internal metadata found in the data source, e.g. Parquet statistics. Otherwise filters the loaded RecordBatches before yielding them.

batch_sizeint, default 128Ki

The maximum row count for scanned record batches. If scanned record batches are overflowing memory then this method can be called to reduce their size.

batch_readaheadint, default 16

The number of batches to read ahead in a file. This might not work for all file formats. Increasing this number will increase RAM usage but could also improve IO utilization.

fragment_readaheadint, default 4

The number of files to read ahead. Increasing this number will increase RAM usage but could also improve IO utilization.

fragment_scan_optionsFragmentScanOptions, default None

Options specific to a particular scan and fragment type, which can change between different scans of the same dataset.

use_threadsbool, default True

If enabled, then maximum parallelism will be used determined by the number of available CPU cores.

memory_poolMemoryPool, default None

For memory allocations, if required. If not specified, uses the default pool.

Returns:
record_batchesiterator of RecordBatch
to_table(self, columns=None, Expression filter=None, int batch_size=_DEFAULT_BATCH_SIZE, int batch_readahead=_DEFAULT_BATCH_READAHEAD, int fragment_readahead=_DEFAULT_FRAGMENT_READAHEAD, FragmentScanOptions fragment_scan_options=None, bool use_threads=True, MemoryPool memory_pool=None)¶

Read the dataset to an Arrow table.

Note that this method reads all the selected data from the dataset into memory.

Parameters:
columnslist of str, default None

The columns to project. This can be a list of column names to include (order and duplicates will be preserved), or a dictionary with {new_column_name: expression} values for more advanced projections.

The list of columns or expressions may use the special fields __batch_index (the index of the batch within the fragment), __fragment_index (the index of the fragment within the dataset), __last_in_fragment (whether the batch is last in fragment), and __filename (the name of the source file or a description of the source fragment).

The columns will be passed down to Datasets and corresponding data fragments to avoid loading, copying, and deserializing columns that will not be required further down the compute chain. By default all of the available columns are projected. Raises an exception if any of the referenced column names does not exist in the dataset’s Schema.

filterExpression, default None

Scan will return only the rows matching the filter. If possible the predicate will be pushed down to exploit the partition information or internal metadata found in the data source, e.g. Parquet statistics. Otherwise filters the loaded RecordBatches before yielding them.

batch_sizeint, default 128Ki

The maximum row count for scanned record batches. If scanned record batches are overflowing memory then this method can be called to reduce their size.

batch_readaheadint, default 16

The number of batches to read ahead in a file. This might not work for all file formats. Increasing this number will increase RAM usage but could also improve IO utilization.

fragment_readaheadint, default 4

The number of files to read ahead. Increasing this number will increase RAM usage but could also improve IO utilization.

fragment_scan_optionsFragmentScanOptions, default None

Options specific to a particular scan and fragment type, which can change between different scans of the same dataset.

use_threadsbool, default True

If enabled, then maximum parallelism will be used determined by the number of available CPU cores.

memory_poolMemoryPool, default None

For memory allocations, if required. If not specified, uses the default pool.

Returns:
tableTable