The Arrow C++ library includes a generic filesystem interface and specific implementations for some cloud storage systems. This setup allows various parts of the project to be able to read and write data with different storage backends. In the
arrow R package, support has been enabled for AWS S3. This vignette provides an overview of working with S3 data using Arrow.
In Windows and macOS binary packages, S3 support is included. On Linux when installing from source, S3 support is not enabled by default, and it has additional system requirements. See
vignette("install", package = "arrow")for details.
For example, one of the NYC taxi data files used in
vignette("dataset", package = "arrow") is found at
Given this URI, you can pass it to
read_parquet() just as if it were a local file path:
df <- read_parquet("s3://ursa-labs-taxi-data/2019/06/data.parquet")
Note that this will be slower to read than if the file were local, though if you’re running on a machine in the same AWS region as the file in S3, the cost of reading the data over the network should be much lower.
Another way to connect to S3 is to create a
FileSystem object once and pass that to the read/write functions.
S3FileSystem objects can be created with the
s3_bucket() function, which automatically detects the bucket’s AWS region. Additionally, the resulting
FileSystem will consider paths relative to the bucket’s path (so for example you don’t need to prefix the bucket path when listing a directory). This may be convenient when dealing with long URIs, and it’s necessary for some options and authentication methods that aren’t supported in the URI format.
FileSystem object, you can point to specific files in it with the
$path() method. In the previous example, this would look like:
You can list the files and/or directories in an S3 bucket or subdirectory using the
help(FileSystem) for a list of options that
S3FileSystem$create() can take.
endpoint_override can be encoded as query parameters in the URI (though
region will be auto-detected in
s3_bucket() or from the URI if omitted).
secret_key can also be included, but other options are not supported in the URI.
The object that
s3_bucket() returns is technically a
SubTreeFileSystem, which holds a path and a file system to which it corresponds.
SubTreeFileSystems can be useful for holding a reference to a subdirectory somewhere (on S3 or elsewhere).
One way to get a subtree is to call the
$cd() method on a
june2019 <- bucket$cd("2019/06") df <- read_parquet(june2019$path("data.parquet"))
SubTreeFileSystem can also be made from a URI:
june2019 <- SubTreeFileSystem$create("s3://ursa-labs-taxi-data/2019/06")
To access private S3 buckets, you need typically need two secret parameters: a
access_key, which is like a user id, and
secret_key, which is like a token or password. There are a few options for passing these credentials:
Include them in the URI, like
s3://access_key:secret_key@bucket-name/path/to/file. Be sure to URL-encode your secrets if they contain special characters like “/” (e.g.,
URLencode("123/456", reserved = TRUE)).
Pass them as
Set them as environment variables named
Define them in a
~/.aws/credentials file, according to the AWS documentation.
If you need to use a proxy server to connect to an S3 bucket, you can provide a URI in the form
proxy_options. For example, a local proxy server running on port 1316 can be used like this:
bucket <- s3_bucket("ursa-labs-taxi-data", proxy_options = "http://localhost:1316")
S3FileSystem machinery enables you to work with any file system that provides an S3-compatible interface. For example, MinIO is and object-storage server that emulates the S3 API. If you were to run
minio server locally with its default settings, you could connect to it with
S3FileSystem like this:
minio <- S3FileSystem$create( access_key = "minioadmin", secret_key = "minioadmin", scheme = "http", endpoint_override = "localhost:9000" )
or, as a URI, it would be
(note the URL escaping of the
Among other applications, this can be useful for testing out code locally before running on a remote S3 bucket.
As mentioned above, it is possible to make use of environment variables to configure access. However, if you wish to pass in connection details via a URI or alternative methods but also have existing AWS environment variables defined, these may interfere with your session. For example, you may see an error message like:
You can unset these environment variables using
Sys.unsetenv(), for example:
By default, the AWS SDK tries to retrieve metadata about user configuration, which can cause conficts when passing in connection details via URI (for example when accessing a MINIO bucket). To disable the use of AWS environment variables, you can set environment variable
Sys.setenv(AWS_EC2_METADATA_DISABLED = TRUE)